Genetic engineering for abiotic stress resistance is now being focused across the globe. I.K. Bhaskar C. Patra, ... Trilochan Mohapatra, in, Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement, Critical Evaluation of the Benefits and Risks of Genetically Modified Horticultural Crops, Genetic Engineering of Horticultural Crops, Breeding Oilseed Crops for Sustainable Production, Millets, Their Importance, and Production Constraints, Biotic stresses caused by living organisms, such as fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, mycoplasma, nematodes, insects, birds, weeds, and parasitic plants are the most important constraints of agricultural production worldwide. Biotic stresses cause damage to plants via living organisms, including fungi, bacteria, insects, and weeds. As a result, the entry of biotic attackers through stomata is prevented. Extreme forms of cold stress can lead to freezing stress. Biotic stresses such as insect pests and weeds are the major concern globally for sustainable agricultural production. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Crop biotic stresses can emerge from weeds, insects or infections. The relationship between biotic stress and plant yield affects economic decisions as well as practical development. Various ways and means to manage these biotic factors have been developed through intensive research and updated as and when the situation demands. Direct burning of plants through wildfires will cause the cell structure to break down through melting or denaturation. While the first is considered the damage done to an organism by other living organisms, the latter occurs as a result of a negative impact of … The estimated loss of grain sorghum production due to biotic stresses (diseases, pests, striga, weeds, and birds) in nine countries of eastern and southern Africa is about 5.88 million tonnes year−1 compared to 2.11 million tonnes year−1 due to water deficits or drought (Wortmann et al., 2009). Although management practices could minimize damage caused by biotic stress factors, development of resistant genotypes has been advocated and remains the most sustainable and efficient way of overcoming yield and quality losses in barley. Biotic stress cause serious monetary harm to crops when limits for occurrence of the stress are exceeded. Understanding abiotic stress responses in plants is critical for the development of new varieties of crops, which are better adapted to harsh climate conditions. Defense suppression and developmental reprogramming via alterations to phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways are critical mechanisms used by pests and pathogens to thrive and cause disease. Biotic stresses such as diseases, insects, and pests affect sesame crops adversely resulting in unpredicted losses in productivity and production. The functionality of chloroplasts plays an important role in mediating the plant hypersensitive response. On the other hand, only about 14 bacterial genera cause economically important diseases in plants, according to an Ohio State University Extension publication. Generally, the small-grain crops are more prone to severe damage by birds than large-grain crops. PPO may play an important role in disease resistance due to quinone formation as an intermediate of PPO oxidation activity and which is toxic to fungus (Thipyapong, Stout, & Attajarusit, 2007). This mechanism blocks invasion of parasites and reduces host susceptibility. 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